Key to Reading Unit 7

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Unit Key 6

Unit Key 8

Unit 7

1. Not even one human life (lit. life of mortals) [is] without grief.

2. To fall upon fire and upon women is just the same.

3. For when Philip had captured Olynthus, he held Olympic games, and brought the artists together for (lit. into) the sacrifice.

4. I/they got glory only with (lit. not without) many labours.

5. There is neither wall nor money nor any other thing [so] difficult to guard as a woman.

6. It is impossible to escape envy amidst success (lit. successes).

7. [There is] one race of men, [and] one of gods.

8. For dying is not shameful but dying shamefully.

9. [One] should not despise the people.

10. So Pharnabazus ordered his brother Magaeus and his uncle Sousamithres to do the deed. Alcibiades was at that time living in a village in (lit. of) Phrygia with the courtesan Timandra, and in his sleep he had (lit. saw) the following dream: Magaeus and his men seemed to be burning his body (i.e. it seemed to him that they ...). And he had (lit. saw) this dream not long (lit. much) before his death. However that may be, the soldiers did not dare to enter, but set fire to the house. So, first of all Alcibiades gathered together his clothes and bed-covers and threw [them] on the fire, and then he dashed out and chased the barbarians. For no-one came to close quarters, but fired javelins and arrows at him (lit. hit him with). Thus fell Alcibiades, and the barbarians went off. But Timandra took up the corpse and buried it magnificently and honourably to the best of her ability. (Adapted from Plutarch Alcibiades 39.1-4.)

11. Clearchus would not lead (lit. was not leading) them against the enemy; for the soldiers were unfed, and also it was already late. However, he did not actually turn aside, but led them straight forward, and at sunset he entered the villages there with the vanguard. So the vanguard pitched camp in this way (i.e. before it was dark), but those who came later began to encamp in the dark and to make much din, so that the enemy both heard [them] and fled from their tents. It/the situation was clear on the following day; there was neither any longer any beast-of-burden there nor camp nor smoke anywhere nearby. Yet during the night fear fell upon the Greeks, and there was a commotion and din. Clearchus ordered the herald Tolmides to proclaim silence, and at daybreak led [his men] against the enemy. (Adapted from Xenophon Anabasis 2.2.16-17.)

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(c) Gavin Betts, Alan Henry 2001