Key to Reading Unit 14

Main Index

Unit Key 13

Unit Key 15

Unit 14

1. Internal strife is accustomed to break out among citizens, if the state stands divided.

2. [It is not the case that] all men are either unfortunate or fortunate in marriage; it is a disaster if ever (lit. whoever) a man gets a bad wife, but fortunate is the one who gets a good one.

3. If ever you wish to be permanently free from pain, you must be either a god or quickly [become] a corpse.

4. 'You will find,' he said, ' that, even [in circumstances] where a city is not governed by (lit. is governed without) a sole ruler, the one which is most willing to obey its rulers is least likely to be compelled to submit to its enemies. So let us present ourselves, as Cyrus bids, at these headquarters, and let us practise what is most necessary, and offer ourselves to Cyrus [for him] to employ in whatever way he needs to.' (Adapted from Xenophon Cyropaedia 8.1.4-5).

5. Two years ago I went out to Panactum, since we had been ordered to do garrison duty (lit. garrison duty having been ordered to us). The sons of Conon here (i.e. the defendant) encamped near us, and our original enmity and causes of friction resulted from that fact (lit. from there). You will hear how this came about (lit. from what things sc. this happened). They used to drink on every occasion throughout the whole day, as soon as they had had breakfast, and they kept on doing this as long as we were in the garrison. We conducted ourselves while in the countryside just as we were accustomed [to do] here. So, during whatever time the others happened to be having their dinner (lit. it happened to the others to dine), they were already playing drunken tricks, most of them on our servant-boys, but in the end on us ourselves. For, alleging that the slaves were blackening them with smoke while preparing the food or were abusing them, they used to beat them and pour their chamber-pots over them and urinate on them. When we saw this and were annoyed, first of all we dismissed their behaviour, but, as they mocked us and did not desist, we - [that is we and] all our messmates together, not [just] I apart from the others - went and told the general what was going on (lit. the matter). After he had rebuked them and reproached them not only for their brutal behaviour (lit. concerning the things which they behaved brutally) towards us but for their general behaviour (lit. concerning the things which they generally did) in the camp, as soon as it had grown dark, they immediately burst in upon us that very evening, and first of all abused us, and finally actually directed blows against me. (Adapted from Demosthenes Against Conon 3-5).

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(c) Gavin Betts, Alan Henry 2001