Key to Reading Unit 11

Main Index

Unit Key 10

Unit Key 12

Unit 11

From this point the omission of the verb to be will no longer be indicated by square brackets.

1. For by the counsel of a man cities are well governed, as is the home (lit. and the home is well [governed]). And again with respect to war it (sc. good counsel) has great strength. For one wise plan defeats many hands, and ignorance together with a mob is the greatest evil.

2. An oak is/can be overcome with many blows.

3. One anchor is in no way accustomed to save a ship (ships were normally secured with two anchors).

4. The law is unwritten even for a stupid king.

5. The whip comes/is made from the ox (i.e. the ox provides the material from which an instrument to beat it is made).

6. I was trying to say something of what I had announced to the Council.

7. It is even a good thing to be ruled by a noble man.

8. O son of Dione, how great a god you are, Dionysus, and in no wise to be withstood by mortals.

9. Misfortune is produced by (lit. from) pleasure.

10. The haven of a ship is a harbour, of life [it is] freedom from grief.

11. Everything is quickly subjected by necessity.

12. (i) Diogenes made the following statement (lit. spoke as follows): 'Everything belongs to (lit. is of) the gods; the wise are the gods' friends; the property of friends is shared (lit. common). Hence everything belongs to the wise.'

(ii) When Plato formulated the definition [that] man is a two-footed featherless creature, he plucked (lit. having plucked) a cock and brought it to the school and said (lit. says), 'This is Plato's man.'
(iii) He was travelling from Sparta to Athens. So, to the man who asked [him] where [he was going] and from where [he had come], he said, 'From the men's quarters to the women's quarters.'
(iv) When he was asked at what time [one] should marry, he said, 'The young not yet, and the rest never at all.'

13. For, when day broke (lit. came into being), they set out on the march and kept (lit. they always had) the sun on their right. They wanted to reach [some] villages in (lit. of) Babylonian territory at sunset. And in this they were not disappointed. While it was still afternoon (lit. still at the time of afternoon) they thought that they saw (lit. they seemed to see) [some] enemy cavalry, and Ariaeus, who was travelling in a wagon because of his wounds, got down and began to put on his breastplate, as did those with him. While they were arming themselves, the scouts who had been sent ahead came [back] and said that they were not cavalry but beasts of burden [who] were grazing. Immediately they all realised that the King was encamping somewhere nearby. In fact, smoke was seen in villages not far off. (Adapted from Xenophon Anabasis 2, 2,13).

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(c) Gavin Betts, Alan Henry 2001