Key to Reading Unit 10

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Unit Key 9

Unit Key 11

Unit 10

1. Aristotle said that the roots of learning were bitter but the fruits sweet.

2. [There is] no lover who is not always in love (lit. does not love always).

3. Everything mortal (lit. all mortal things) has/involves many vicissitudes.

4. Fortune conquers and alters everything.

5. Hunger makes everything sweet except itself.

6. Time is the healer of all necessary evils.

7. Poverty lacks many things, greed [lacks] everything.

8. All the parts of life, just as of a statue, must be beautiful.

9. Did he commit all these injustices and violate the truce and break the peace or not?

10. For you did all this and this pleased all of you.

11. Ignorant strength often begets/produces harm.

12. But the noble man ought to bear disasters well.

13. Where a man is in pain, there he also directs (lit. has) his mind.

14. In the face of necessity everything else (lit. all other things) is weak.

15. But day and black night beget/produce many things for mortals.

16. A good man never (lit. not ever) hates a[nother] good man.

17. To conquer oneself (lit. [a man] himself to conquer himself) [is] the foremost and best of all victories.

18. 'Ctesippus,' said Dionysodorus, 'do you have (lit. is there to you) a dog?'

'[Yes], a very mischievous [one],' said Ctesippus.
'Does he have (lit. is there to him) puppies?'
'[Yes], certainly, just like himself (lit. others resembling [him]).'
'So the dog is their father?'
'[Yes (see 13.1/3b)], he covered the bitch; for I saw this myself.'
'What then? Is the dog not yours?'
'Certainly,' he said.
'So, being a father, he is yours, so that the dog is your father and you are the puppies' brother.'
Dionysodorus quickly took up [the questioning] again and asked, 'Do you beat this dog?'
Ctesippus said, 'Absolutely; for I can't [beat] you.'
'So,' he said, 'do you beat your own father?'
'I ought rather,' he said. 'to beat your father, because he produced such clever sons.' (Adapted from Plato Euthydemus 298d ff.)
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(c) Gavin Betts, Alan Henry 2001