Key to Reading Unit 4

Main Index

Unit Key 3

Unit Key 5

Unit 4

1. There are many, various ways of catching crocodiles, but I describe (lit. write) only one: the hunters used to set as bait a chine of pork on (lit. around) a hook and throw it into the river, while (lit. but) they kept a live pig on the bank of the river and beat [it]. The crocodile would hear the cry and begin to run, find the chine and eat [it]. The hunters would drag [it] on to the land, and first [of all] immediately smear its eyes with mud, and then complete the business (lit. do the remaining things) without trouble. (Adapted from Herodotus 2.70.)

2. My sons and friends, for me the end of my life is at hand; I know [this] clearly from many indications (lit. from many [things]); but after my death you must regard me as a happy man in all your words and actions (lit. speak and do everything as concerning me happy). For I always had fine things (lit. the fine [things, i.e. of life]), not only when I was a boy, but also when I was an adolescent and a man. And now it is clear that, through my efforts (lit. through me), my friends are free, and my enemies slaves. And our country, which was formerly obscure, I leave behind in control over much in Asia. And now I leave you, my sons, behind, and you too, my friends. So how can men not rightly have a good memory of me? (Adapted from Xenophon, Cyropaedia 8.7.6-9.)

3. When Agesilaus had come, Pharnabazus said to him, 'Agesilaus and comrades, when you were at war with (lit. hostile to) the Athenians, I was a friend and ally, and I brought money for your fleet, and on land I joined you in chasing (lit. together with you I chased) the enemy into the sea. Now I am very badly treated on account of you, and I do not have food in my country. Formerly, I had beautiful houses and parks full of trees and wild-animals, but now you [have] cut down and burned everything.' (Adapted from Xenophon Hell. 4.1.32-33).

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(c) Gavin Betts, Alan Henry 2001